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INQUILINUS / ZSELLER / JELERI
In Banat, a zsellér is a serf with his own house and 1/8 Session of land [that means 7 Joch/iugar [composed by: 5 Joch/iugar agricultural land; 1 Joch/iugar of grass-land; 1 Joch/iugar land for the house]; but this is a very complex concept.
After the 1780 conscription [the "Conscriptio Urbarialis Banaticum" made by Count Kristof Niczky's Commission using as example the already existing Hungarian one], there where 3 categories of peasants in Banat:
-colonized peasants [colonus]
The serfs where split in 2 categories:
-sessionati [in Latin; serfs with land]
-non sessionati [serfs without land].
If the serfs had less than an eight of Session but had his own house, he was named "inquilini / inquilinus" in Latin language [jeleri in Romanian language; zsellér / zsoller or kis-házas in Hungarian language].
If the serfs lived in somebody's house, he was named "subinquilini".
Felix Game's Web Site has a page explaining these terms for Hungary and even if the situation is a little different in Hungary than in Banat, it is a good opportunity for making an opinion:
-the Farmer (colonus)
-the Cotter (Hungarian: zsellér [or kis-házos], Latin: inquilinus, German: Kleinhäusler).
-the Subtenant (also zsellér in Hungarian, but subinquilinus in Latin and Holden in German).
In the dictionaries you can find:
Inquiliny [Latin] = alien / strain [tenant=Mieter (in German language), chiriaş (in Romanian language) / lodger=chiriaş]
Inquilinus [Latin] = locatar [Romanian] / lodger [English]; chiriaş / tenant; venetic / alien [figurative]
Colonus [Latin] = colonist but also farmer / cultivator of land, peasant
Coloni = plural for colonus
Colona [Latin] = wife of a farmer / cultivator
In Banat, the standard dimension and composition of a farm was:
-Peasant with a full Session = 34 Joch/iugar [24 Joch/iugar agricultural land; 6 Joch/iugar of hay field; 3 Joch/iugar of grass-land; 1 Joch/iugar land for the house].
-Peasant with a half of Session = 19 Joch/iugar [12 Joch/iugar agricultural land; 4 Joch/iugar of hay field; 2 Joch/iugar of grass-land; 1 Joch/iugar land for the house].
-Peasant with a quarter of Session = 11 Joch/iugar [6 Joch/iugar agricultural land; 3 Joch/iugar of hay field; 1 Joch/iugar of grass-land; 1 Joch/iugar land for the house].
-Peasant with an eight of Session = 7 Joch/iugar [5 Joch/iugar agricultural land; 1 Joch/iugar of grass-land; 1 Joch/iugar land for the house].
[Note: the measurement of a Joch/iugar differed during the time]
size of these assignments varied slightly in the different settlements. For
example, in Grabatz's case a full assignment was made up of the following:
-12 hectares of fields [champs]
-3 hectares of meadows [prairies]
-1 hectare of pasture [paturages].
A smaller number of Grabatz's inhabitants were distributed as half-assignments [demi-cessions] made up as follows:
-6 hectares of fields
-2 hectares of meadows
-1 hectare of pasture.
In some settlements only quarter-assignments [quarts de cessions] were allocated and were composed of:
-3 hectares of fields
-1 hectare and a half of meadows
-1 hectare of pasture.
Over and above this, around each house was a garden of half a hectare.
Measurement Units in Banat:
Session (Ansassigkeit)=4 Viertel-4 quarters=1 Joch / iugar=0,575 Hektar / Hectare[Ha]=1,43
1/2 Session (Halbe Ansassigkeit)=2 Viertel-two quarters=1/2 Joch
1 Joch (Tagwerk) zu 1.600 Quadratklafter=0,575 Hektar=1,43 acres.
1 Joch / iugar = 1600 Wiener Klfter2 / stanjeni vienezi2=5751,7 m2
1 Wiener Klfter / stanjeni vienezi=6 foot / picioare =1,896 m
1 Schuh (Fuß) / foot / picioare = 31,6 cm
1 Quadratklafter - square fathom = 3,6 qm
= 4,3 square yards
1 Motike (200 Quadratklafter) = 72 Ar = 0,18 acres
1 Viertel (400 Quadratklafter) - quarter = 144 Ar = 0,36 acres
1 Morgen = 0,26 Hektar = 0.64 acres
1 Acker - acre = 0,41 Hektar = 1 acre
1 Joch (Tagwerk) zu 1.600 Quadratklafter = 0,58 Hektar = 1,43 acres
9 Ketten - chains = 1 Viertel = 1/4 Joch
1 Hufe = 10 Hektar = 24,71 acres
1 Ar = 100 qm = 120 square yards
1 Hektar = 100 Ar = 2,5 acres