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The village of Cenad [Tschanad/Csanad] is located in the West of the Timis County/Romania, near the border with Hungary, just at 2 km from the Mures/Maros [in Hungarian] River. Longitude: 20033'; Latitude: 4608' [from Greenwich]. On the right side of the Mures River is the village of Hungarian Cenad.
According to the information supplied by the 1992 romanian census, the village has a population of 3943 people [1952 males]. The population is sinking in the period 1980-1991 from 4952 inhabitants to 3943. In 1996, the population consists of: 2304 Romanians, 734 Hungarians, 83 Germans, 2 Serbians, 14 Bulgarians, 243 Gypsies and 870 other nationalities. In 1996 in the village were 1564 houses, out of which private persons own 1261 and 296 are state owned. The population changed in the last 3 centuries, as following:
-In 1810 there were 1427 Catholics [mainly of German origin] in the Cenad parish
-In 1815 there were 1650 Catholics belonging to the parish
-In 1825 there were 1905 Catholics belonging to the parish, 5020 Orthodox people, 2 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 5 Protestants of Helvetica confess ion
-In 1833 there were 5686 inhabitants [1960 germans/34,4% and 3726 others]
-In 1843 there were 2469 Catholics belonging to the parish [1782 in Csanad and 687 in Racz-Csanad], 4461 Orthodox people [all in Racz-Csanad], 4 Protestants of Augsburg confession[all in Racz-Csanad], 25 Protestants of Helvetica confession [all in Racz-Csanad] and 4 Jews [all in Racz-Csanad]
-In 1846 there were 2570 Catholics belonging to the parish [862 in Racz Csanad], 3748 Orthodox people, 4 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 28 Protestants of Helvetica confession and 16 Jews, 453 without confession [Gypsies?]
-In 1848 there were 2789 Catholics belonging to the parish [1028 in Racz Csanad], 2996 Orthodox people, 5 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 14 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 2 Protestants of Helvetica confession and 8 Jews, 426 without confession [Gypsies?]
-In 1853 there were 2800 Catholics belonging to the parish [953 in Racz Csanad], 3772 Orthodox people, 7 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 4 Protestants of Helvetica confession and 37 Jews. [in this year were 180 B, 56 D and only 5 mixed marriages in this year]
-In 1855 there were 3137 Catholics belonging to the parish [1148 in Racz Csanad], 3768 Orthodox people[ only 3 in German Csanad], 7 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 5 Protestants of Helvetica confession and 24 Jews [163 B, 72 D and only 7 mixed marriages in this year]
-In 1865 there were 3621 Catholics belonging to the parish [1526 in Racz Csanad], 2828 Orthodox people, 1180 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 18 Protestants of Augsburg confession and 51 Jews [194 B, 112 D]
-In 1875 there were 2626 Catholics belonging to the parish, 2825 Orthodox people, 1180 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 12 Protestants of Augsburg confession and 60 Jews [B 144, D 170]
-In 1880 there were 6982 inhabitants in the village [3037 germans/43,4%; 1995 romanians; 1438 serbs; 123 hungarians; 389 others]
-In 1883 there were 3405 Catholics belonging to the parish [1533 in Racz Csanad], 1374 Orthodox people, 698 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 8 Protestants of Augsburg confession and 21 Jews
-In 1886 there were 3576 Catholics belonging to the parish [1637 in Racz Csanad], 3088 Orthodox people, 526 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 3 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 3 Protestants of Helvetica confession and 24 Jews [140 B, 83 D, 40 M only in Nemet Csanad]
-In 1890 there were 7427 inhabitants in the village [3418 germans/46%; 2216 romanians; 1567 serbs; 166 hungarians; 60 others]
-In 1900 there were 7389 inhabitants in the village [3244 germans/43,9%; 2246 romanians; 1583 serbs; 221 hungarians; 105 others]
-In 1910 there were 7187 inhabitants in the village [2750 germans/38,2%; 2073 romanians; 1590 serbs; 613 hungarians; 161 others]
-In 1913 there were 3362 Catholics belonging to the parish [1501 in Nemetcsanad], 3237 Orthodox people, 493 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 11 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 46 Protestants of Helvetica confession, 37 Jews [in 1912: B 95, M 23, D 88]
-In 1916 there were 3329 Catholics belonging to the parish [1660 in Nemetcsanad], 3189 Orthodox people, 496 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 17 Protestants of Augsburg confession, 49 Protestants of Helvetica confession, 42 Jews [in 1915: B 62, M 3, D 46]
-In 1922 there were 3329 Catholics belonging to the parish [1529 in NemetCsanad/Oscsanad ]
-In 1930 there were 7236 inhabitants in the village [2985 germans/41,2%; 2120 romanians; 1216 serbs; 655 hungarians; 260 others]
-In 1940 there were 8316 inhabitants in the village [3026 germans/36,3%; 3400 romanians; 1000 serbs; 800 hungarians; 90 others]
-In 1943 there were 4100 Catholics belonging to the parish [1435 in Alt-Tschanad/Oscsanad] 2826 Orthodox people, 512 Eastern or Greek-rite Catholics, 30 Protestants of Helvetica confession [1942: B 44, D 62].
The oldest human traces in the region go back to the Neolithic period. There was a settlement of tribes made up of farmers and animal breeders. There were discovered few funeral polls from the bronze epoch. The presence of the Dacian population in the region is a doubtless phenomenon and covers a long period of time. Until now, only one event is known to have reached the Cenad region during the Dacian period. It is the campaign led by the Roman general Marcus Vinicius during the years 10 and 9 before Christ. The aim of the campaign was to punish the Dacians for their campaigns South of the Danube. As long as Dacia has been a Roman province, on the village’s present perimeter there was the camp of the 13th legion, called Gemina. This camp is a part of the defense works, which were protecting both the inferior lines of the Mures River, as well as the confluence region with the Tisa River. Although this camp was one of the most important camps from the military point of view, it polarized the life of the neighboring settlements and become an important center of the Mures region. The economic life, based on agriculture and, partially, on trade, reached the level of the entire province. After the Romans left Dacia one can not assert that there was no human life in the village anymore. The archeological traces related to the period between the 2nd and the 4th centuries (after Christ) show a human life of rustic nature. In the 4th century the Roman Empire extended again its domination in North of the Danube. Archeologists discovered in Cenad a brick bearing the inscription SISCIA, which is supposed to have been brought on the Mures river by the Roman troops that repaired the former camp. The migration of several populations did not succeed to stop the rustic life of the native Daco-Romans. The messenger of the Roman emperor finds here people speaking Latin, and he calls them “ausoni”. This fact is also strengthened by the archeological discovery of an incineration cemetery of Christian type and a similar settlement dating from the 7th – 9th centuries. The Cenad region was very well populated during the last centuries of the 1st millennium. The Roman civilization of the native inhabitants was superior to the migrating elements they lived together with for a period and which they assimilated. The region had an active economic life, combining agriculture, animal breeding and trades on the Mures river valley, where one of the epoch’s most important commercial roads was passing by.
The first written source mentions in the year 1038 the settlement under the name “Urbs Morisena”, a sign that the settlement exceeded the stage of the rural development and transformed itself in an urban like center, becoming one of the most important centers of the entire Banatian region.
At the beginning of the 11th century, Morisena becomes the capital (“regnum”) of the country led by duke Ahtum, the Banatian leader who was fighting for defending the independence of his country. By becoming the country’s capital, Morisena (Cenad) was recognized for its important strategic role and its devel opment.
In the city there was duke Ahtum’s palace and a monastery of “Greek” monks (East Christian ritual) with the festival Saint Ioan Botezatorul [John the Baptist]. The inhabitants’ main occupations were agriculture and animal breeding, but also trade. The transport and sale of salt on the Mures River was bringing important incomes and Cenad, as the country’s center, had a salt deposit. The presence of merchants from all over Europe, who bought salt and sold their own goods, meant important steps in the city’s development. The appearance of handicraftsmen – necessary both in Ahtum’s yard, as well as for satisfying the townsmen’s needs – completes the settlement’s image.
An important event in the settlement’s life was the foundation of a school somewhere before the middle of the 11th century [probably 1038]– the first certified school on Romania’s territory. Gerard, bishop of Latin ritual, founded the school, which was meant for the sons of the aristocracy in the entire region.
As time passes by, the new name –Cenad– is used more and more, although the documents up to the 12th century also mention the name Morisena. The settlement has a habitable area of four hectares, divided for approximately 80-100 houses. The settlement was subordinated to the Episcopal Center located here [raised by the King Stephan the Holly in 1036] and the main part of inhabitants was made up of serfs of the bishop or other churches. The fortress was also subordinated to the bishop. Giving up the role hold during the millennium’s first centuries (capital), Cenad begins to decline, first to a county center, then to a simple market town and in the end to a village. This transformation took place in about seven centuries.
During the 13th century, the domain of the Cenad fortress comprised about 10 settlements: Bogar, Pony, Jeneu, Teleki, Chunej, Ekud, Inad, Seleus, Bator, Chika, Beu (they do not exist today). The number of the villages changed during the centuries, depending also on the fortress’s military importance. There was also a monastery with a very important role in the medieval epoch of Banat. Cenad and Arad, with their two monasteries, assured the role of a public notary for the entire Banatian region. The inhabitants draw up here all their public and private documents.
After the battles against the Petchenegs (1091) and the Cumanians (1250, 1285, etc.), which slightly affected the town’s development, in 1241 the town suffers a great disaster provoked by the Tartars. The presence of the church’s VIP's and the town’s wealth attracted the Tartars to besiege and conquer Cenad. After robbing the town the Tartars enslaved the inhabitants and destroyed the town’s most representative buildings. Slowly, life continues its normal way, but in the following centuries the town will never reach again the same political, military and ecclesiastic role.
Although in 1343 Cenad is mentioned as “civitas” (city) and a weekly fair took place here every Saturday, its development begins to slow down due to the restrictions imposed by the ecclesiastic author ity.
Meanwhile, there took place some actions of religious proselytism and social movements, which made possible for Jacob of Marchia (1436) and Ioan of Capistrano (1455) to visit Cenad. In 1459, the closing of new dangers led to the consolidation of the Cenad defense works. Only the end of the century will bring the ultimate danger – the Ottoman Turks.
The 16th century brings in Cenad’s history four important events, with painful significance on its development: in 1514 the battle close to the town between Doja’s rebels and the episcopal troops; in 1526-1527 battles between prince Zapolya’s troops and the Romanian and Serbian rebels led by Iovan Nenada; in 1551-1552 battles for Cenad’s conquest; 1595-1598 battles for Cenad’s liberation. In this period [1551-1552] the Bischop Ioan VIII Barlabas of Hederfaja abandoned the settlement and between 1552-1724, the residence of the Cenad Bishopric was moved to Seghed. On 5.03.1724, the Cenad Bishopric moved to Timisoara [where exists until our days]. The battles between the Ottomans and the outlaws of the epoch reached an important point after 1688, when the fortress of Cenad was many times attacked, besieged, conquered, set on fire, destroyed and robbed. But it still resists, although its military role is decreasing. In 1688 the fortress is given to Thököly, an ally of the Ottomans. At the beginning of 1694 it is in the hands of the imperials, at the end of the year it returns to the Ottomans and in September 1695 the imperials besiege the fortress and conquer it again, after building a bridge on the Mures river. They have built this bridge in order to prepare the attack on Timisoara, which was supposed to take place in the following year. In 1699 there were 200 imperials soldiers but in the same year the fortress is demolished and the inhabitants spread due to the battles.
After the final defeat against the Turks in Banat (1717), the census performed by count Mercy, governor of Banat, mentions the existence of 40 inhabited houses [or houses paying taxes? This is a too long debate between historians!] in Cenad. On 1.09.1741 the Cenad Parish was reactivated with the following villages as filial: Sannicolau Mare, Apatfalva, Nadlac, Comlosu-Mare and Zomborul Mic. In 1743 the church was raised in Cenadul Vechi site. In 1868 the church was demolished to be rebuild [hallowed in 1870]. The church was named after the Saint Gerhardus [Gerardi/Gerard/Gellért/Gerhard]. The grave of the Saint is inside the church. The height of the church tour's is 60,4 m in and at 30 m is a terrace for observation. In the tour are 4 bells and a clock.
The village was colonized with settlers from Western Europe in three stages: 1745, 1765 and 1786.
The first German families reach Cenad in 1745 when there were settled down few German families, which seamed to be natives from the neighborhood of New-Palanka, town that was destroyed by the Turks in 1737/'39 war. Close to the Serbian/Racz Cenad [the future village Cenadul Mare] there was built the German Cenad. The main colony was established in 1764/'65 [under the leadership of Baron Laffert/Laff] and there was built a number of 139 free houses for the 139 German families [among them were few French families as well!].
"The first clear immigration from Sauerland1 took place in 1764, represented by a family from Freienohl: Kaspar Schwarzfärber and two families from Ober- and Niederalbaum: Johann Schlecker, Johann Claren. At least the first family was previously in Periam. But it seams that these families already have had forerunners. Exactly 10 months after these families, a group of 14 families from Sauerland crossed Vienna and two days later, another group of 40 families; both groups expressed their wish “to be allowed to settle down in Cenad by their friends”. We do not know for sure if this fact is also valid for the three already mentioned families. In March 1766, in Vienna, two members of a group of emigrants from Oberhunden, Heinrich Walter and Johann Ebert, signed a complaint addressed to the empress containing the note “from Banat in Schannat”. It is most probable that we speak here about the forerunners of the three families from 1764. After a short period of time spent in Periam, the 14 families, which crossed Vienna on March 25, 1765, were settled down in Cenad [august 1765], according to their wish. There were 7 families from Oberhundem: Fritz Aufermann, Franz Aufermann, Anton Möller, Johann Ebert Annenbrinck, Johann Ebert Schötteler, Johann Georg Schötteler, Johann Heinrich Feldhaus; one family from Altenhundem: Johann Hose/Haas, one from Schwartmecke: Johann Dietrich Welterken, one from Stelborn: Johann Petz, one from Helden: Johann Cordes, one from Meggen: Johann Reuter, two families from Oedingen: Anton Kühne, Reinhard Kühne. The nucleus of the Sauerland colony in Cenad was established. The following 40 families seamed to have changed their intention on the way, so that they settled down on other towns: out of the 30 families, for which we were able to establish their existence within this area, only two families settled down in Cenad, 8 in the German Sannicolau and 17 in Brückenau. The flow from Wetsfalen toward Cenad grew stronger during these months. There was one family coming from Bilstein: Friedrich Bender, one from Lüdespert: Peter Bockemüller, one from Wormbach: Theodor Hesse. Towards the end of May 1765 there was another big group, which settled down in the region, namely 9 families from Oberhundem: Valentin Weber, Johann Schmelter, Hans Georg Dörrenbach, Anton Aufermann, Peter Aufermann, Johann Schröder, Peter Wolf, Johann Heinrich Wolf, one family from “Ost” (=Ostentrop?): Heinrich Schmidt, one from Bracht b. Wormbach: Johann Heinrich Schul-(te?), one from Heiderhof b. Droslhagen: Josef Huperts, one from Olpe: Johann Hupert, 2 families from Neger: Johann Mayworm, Bernhard Krebs. Few weeks later, towards the end of June, there was another strong flow -14 families- from Westfalen, especially from Hochsauerland. There was one family from Fredeburg: Adam Hömberg, one from Heiminghausen: Johann Feldmann, two families from Nierentrop: Franz Bette, Math. Bette, two families from Niedersorpe: Johann Henderkes, Franz Schauerte. One family came from Oberfleckenberg: Franz Laes, one from Winkhausen: Franz Schauerte; three families from Kückelheim b. Eslohe: Heinrich Tillmann, Anton Poggel, Anton Wagner. Together with them came also a family from Schönholthausen: Johann Peter Correk, one from Felbecke: Franz Gockel (who after a short period returned in his native country), one from Serkenrode b. Schliprüthen: Christoph Backhaus, one from Werl: Bernhand Hilger, and for a short period also a family from Isingheim b. Eslohe: Eberhard Schulte. This large group closed the flow from Sauerland for that year. About 50 families settled down in Cenad. A total number of 140 houses were populated during that year with Germans from Lothringen, Luxembourg, Franken, Schwaben and Westfalen, covering 3 parallel streets. Even if we take into account that due to death cases and repatriation there were needed more than 140 families for the inhabiting, we can say that the contribution of the people from Sauerland to the inhabiting of Cenad was of great importance.
Although in case of Cenad we can talk about an “old”, already existent town, the new colonists had to fight very hard for their existence in the first year. In April 1767 the county administration organized in Timisoara a general survey regarding the colonists, in which the deputies from Cenad had the possibility to express their opinions and wishes. The deputies said that they would not have been able to survive with the profit obtained from their first harvest. “Their houses were finished only after three years. Next year they resumed the same complaint, saying that “they were hardly provided with supplies and if nobody will come to help them, they will have no possibility to survive”. They asked “for more supplies until the next harvest”. The deputies delegated in April 1767 reported that the flood caused by the Mures River provoked the death of lots of animals. Now they complained that within one year they lost a number of 54 horses and 56 cattle. The real effect of this great loss became clear as the administration of Cenad – as well as the administrations from Sannicolau Mare and Periam – reported that “while some colonists remained with one horse or mare, one ox and one cattle, the others lost all their horses, cattle and cows, so that they have no milk to feed their children and no animals for plugging, getting fruits and hay in the barn and other agricultural works, they all express their request to get some other animals, and because peasants can not survive without animals and most of the people, together with their children, live from a single bread and glass of milk, the administration joins the request of the survivors”. The county administration expressed its desire to support them in this case as well. But the new inhabitants passed the first years in needs and poverty, but then their vitality, diligence and usage brought the welfare.
It was clear that a planned inhabiting with closed groups would result in closed communities, especially when we talk about peasant groups, which wanted to keep their continuity as much as possible. That is why one can suppose that the nucleus of the immigrants from Sauerland was located on the superior side of Cenad, on the main street, starting from the church and toward Sannicolau Mare, side which was called “the corner of the Sauerland people”. The street had a breadth of 35-40 m, there were broad pavements watched by big trees, colored wood fences between houses with one floor and gables. The houses proved the welfare of their inhabitants. Towards South, the street ended in the large Hungarian steppe. This was the image of the Sauerland corner, an ideal type of streets for the colonies in Banat".
In 1768 Cenad comprised a total number of 483 properties. On 20 April 1768 the future emperor Iosif/Joseph the 2nd [at this time he was only co-regent] visited the area with his brother in law Albert de Saxen and by his private secretary, Count Nostiz. From Cenad, Iosif the 2nd traveled on horseback, trough Sannicolau Mare-Periam-Grosdorf, to Arad.
Contrary to the evident opinions on the first inhabiting, the map of the Military Geographical Institute of 1881 shows an astonishing fact, namely that in the mentioned period only the western side of the street was populated, that means only 6 houses. It results that the major part of the immigrants from Sauerland should have populated other streets. The corner got its name only from this group of 6 families. The eastern side of the street was populated only during 1881 and 1901. Other documents on the corner’s inhabitants were not available; we had to use the knowledge of the today’s population. It resulted that today there is no information anymore on the late inhabiting of the eastern side of the street and that during their existence, the 33 houses often changed their owner due to marriage, inheritance or sale cases. Out of the 35 houses, which are inhabited today, descendants of immigrants from Sauerland own 18; we stress once again that, according to the inhabitants, 4 houses are owned by immigrants from Sauerland since their arrival: no. 87 – Abermann, no. 91 – Dornbach, no. 92 – Schiller, no. 94 – Schmelzer. Although the major part of the persons from Sauerland currently live outside the Sauerland corner and about a half of the houses located in the corner are inhabited by descendants of other immigrants, the corner keeps its special note for the today’s community. The village recognizes it as an exquisite place, expressing a special feeling of solidarity. There is no doubt that this is the effect of the corner’s special importance for their forerunners. The corner had a significant influence on the community’s life during this period. In 1767, Peter Koreck, a man from Sauerland, became mayor and in 1784 his son, Anton Koreck, became judge of the village".
At 1.08.1781 was published the auction for all the estates in Banat. The Sannicolau Mare estate [his price was 405.732 florins and 10 2/3 creitari] was formed by the villages Sannicolau Mare, German Cenad, Albrechtsflor, and Pusta Pordean, the big forests of Ver and Telec and the little forest of Zabran. The villages Teremia, Vizejdia, Comlosul Mare, Lunga, Nakofalva, Cenadul Sarbesc/Racz, and Pusta Gerolam, with its forest, formed the Marienfeld estate [price 218.561 florins and 53 8/9 cretari]. The Nacu brothers [Cristofor and Ciril] bought these 2 estates with a price higher than the starting auction price with 75.705 florins and 55 4/5 creitari. The Nacu Family, originally from Macedonia, is a very old family; on this family we have already the first info in the history of Macedonia starting 1382. The mother's side -the Kalenzi family- is known starting 1410 when the family was ennobled. Cristofor Nacu came from Macedonia to Empire around 1760 followed 10 years latter by his brother Ciril/Chiril. Both were big merchants. They organized, around Sanncolau Mare and Dudestii Vechi, the washing of wool, supplying of cereals and animals for the imperial army needs. Iosif the 2nd knew very well the Nacu brothers and he helped at the acquisitions of the 2 estate.
In the lifetime of Cristofor and Ciril these 2 domains were common property. After their deaths, Alexandru [Cristofor's son] inherit the Sannicolau Mare estate and Iosif [Ciril's son] the Marienfeld estate. Emperor Iosif the 2nd ennobled Cristofor [27.02.1784] and Emperor Francisc I give to Alexandru the title of "grof" [=count, in Hungarian language]. Alexandru, at 16 yeas old, remained orphan and was raised by the catholic monks under the supervision of Emperor Francisc I. In 1816, Alexandru will abandon the orthodox believe and became Roman Catholic. In this period of time the Nacu name became Nako/Nákó.
In 1781, the owners, Nako family, divided the settlement into two separate parts: the Serbian/Racz Cenad and the German/Nemet Cenad. On 10.12.1781 a conscription was made on the estate and were founde d:
-51 owners of a full Session
-87 owners of a half of Session
-78 owners of 1/4 Session
-107 owners of a 1/8 Session and
Total: 371 families.
In 1786, there were colonized another 50-60 German families, which previously have been settled by Emperor Maria Teresa in Batschka, in the Sava region. For long time, the new colonists did not want to "melt" with the older settlers.
In 1822-'26, according to the oldest document found at the Cenad's Mayoralty, on the estate existed 621 inquilini and 62 hortulani [hortulus is the Latin name for garden/house with garden; so, here with the mining of land owners].
Starting with 1860 the two villages obtain the right to organize weekly fairs and they are brought together again at November 1st, 1858. Four months before this event the settlements were granted the position of cities.
During 1848/1849 the city is involved in the battles between the Hungarian revolutionists and the Serbian frontier guards. The serfdom was abolished in 1848, but the land reform took place only in 1920.
At the end of [starting November] 1918, for several months, Cenad was under the Serbian Army's occupation. At one day after the Serbian left the city, the French occupied it and in August 21st, 1919, Cenad became Romanian territory.
The German school was raised at the end of XVIII Century. Starting 1870 it was sustained by the mayoralties of both villages. In 1900 the school became a state institution. The kindergarten was raised in 1903.
Until 1909 the villages of Cenad kept their names given in 1781. Starting 22.04.1911, the village of Racz Cenad/Cenadul Sarbesc was named Nagycsanad [Big Cenad] and the German Cenad the name of Öscsanad [Old Cenad].
"The initial specific features and the North-German dialect disappeared during the last generations. Death and emigration made some names from Westfalen to disappear. In 1937 [when Treude was probably in Banat preparing his dissertation] "there are the following names: Abermann – 25-30 families, Anebring – about 10 families, Backhaus – 2 families, Bender – 1 family, Bogel – 6 families, Dornbach – 16 families, Hilger – about 12 families, Koreck – over 20 families, Kün – 15-20 families, Maywurm – 6 families, Schißler – about 20 families, Schmelzer – 15-20 families, Schmidt – 5 families, Valtrich – 15-20 families, Wagner – over 10 families, Weber – 6 families and Wolf – over 20-25 families. There are also other families like Curdes, Schröder, Eberhard. Even if these over 200 families are descending from a small part of the 50 colonist families, their contribution to the total number of inhabitants is very important. Furthermore, the descendants of the initial families still live in the neighboring Sannicolau Mare, which had good relationships with Cenad since the inhabiting period".
Today, only a few older german families are still living in Cenad.
 According to Friedhelm Treude's book “Die Auswanderung aus dem kurkolnischen Sauerland im Zuge der theresianischen Banatbesiedlung 1763-1772”, ed. 1988, 271 pages, Olpe, Germany.