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The Ausgleich was a complicated constitutional process with deep roots during the time and several distinct steps during the entire year 1867.





the “February Patent” [project elaborated by Anton von Schmerling] proposed to convert the Reichsrath into a constitutional representative assembly, with two chambers, to which all the provinces of the empire were to send deputies.


the “February Patent” is submitted to the Hungarian Diet assembled at Pest.


the Hungarian Diet is asking for the restoration of the political and territorial integrity of Hungary, for the public coronation of the king with all its accompaniments, and the full restitution of the fundamental laws.


The Diet is dissolved. The so-called “Provisorium” begun.


in the Hungarian newspaper "Pesti Napló" is published the unsigned article which went into history as the "Húsvéti Cikke"/ie "Easter Article". The author was Ferenc Deák [B 17.10.1803, Söjtör, Zala County; 19.01.1876, Budapest]. In the article, a true political declaration which had a great importance in speeding up the Compromise negotiations, Deák declared that Hungary was ready to harmonize its legislation with the security of the Empire and acknowledged that there were "common affairs" which should be negotiated between the two countries for their mutual interest.

June 1865

Francis/Franz Josef I [B 1830; D 1916] is in Buda.


a provisional Hungarian government is formed.


the “February Constitution” is suspended.


a Hungarian Diet is summoned to Buda-Pest. The session was interrupted by the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, but not before a committee had been formed to draft the new constitution.


Austro-Prussian War [or the Seven Weeks War] between Prussia and Austria.


Prussia’s decisive victory at Königgrätz/Sadowa in East Bohemia.


Preliminary treaty of peace at Nikolsburg.


Unsuccessful negotiations to finalize the dualist act. 


The final peace Treaty of Prague. Prussia annexed Hanover, Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfurt, in addition to Schleswig-Holstein. The German Confederation was replaced by the Prussian-led North German Confederation [1867]. Reorientation of Austria toward the east.


Vienna Treaty. Austria cede Venetia and Veneto region to Italy.


the Hungarian diet is reassembled.


Imperial proclamation on the “pragmatic affairs” between the two partners of the dualist system: Austria and Hungary.




Emperor Francis/Franz Josef I’s arbitration in the Council of Minister. The political decision in Dualism’s favor is taken.


Friedrich Ferdinand, Freiherr/baron von Beust [B 13.01.1809, Dresden; D 24.10.1886, Schloss Altenberg, near Vienna] became the new Chairmen of the Council of Ministers.


First constitutional Hungarian government. Julius/Gyula, Graf/Count Andrássy von Csík Szent Király and Krazna-Horka "the Elder" [B 3.03.1823, Kaschau/Košice; D 18.02.1890, Volosca/Volosko] is appointed by Emperor Francis/Franz Josef I as Prime Minister [up to 14.11.1871].


the Ausgleich [Kiegyezés or Kiegyenlítés in Hungarian language /i.e. “the Compromise”] is signed.

Foreign, military and financial affairs [starting 1878 also the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina] were placed under the authority of shared ministries [ie “pragmatic affairs”]. The rates of contribution to common expenses were 70 % for Austria and 30 % for Hungary [starting 1907: 63,4 % - 36,6 %]. Common national debt, trade, customs policy, central banks, the issuing of currency and the railroads were handled separately [ie “dualistic affairs”].

The shared authorities and affairs of the Hungarian and Austrian parts of the monarchy were referred to as "kaiserlich und königlich" [abbr. "k. u. k."/ie “imperial and royal”], those specific to the Austrian part were "kaiserlich-königlich" [abbr. "k. k." /ie “imperial-royal”], which corresponded to the term "königlich ungarisch" [abbr. "k. ung."/ie “royal” in Hungarian language] in Hungary.

The legislative body for "k. u. k." affairs comprised delegations of 60 members each, elected for one year only and convened alternately in Vienna and Budapest.


the Hungarian Diet formally accepted [by 209 votes to 89] the terms of the Ausgleich and adopted Law XII which defines the joint Affairs existing between the territories of the Crown of St. Stephen and the other territories of His Majesty, or the affairs which are not actually joint, but are to be disposed of by joint agreement, and also the manner in which such affairs are to be administered.


Emperor Francis/Franz Josef I is crowned king of Hungary.


Emperor Francis/Franz Josef I sanctioned the 69 paragraph of the Hungarian Law XII.


Delegations Act known also as the Dezember-Verfassung [ie December Constitution]. The Austrian parliament /ie Reichsrat passed the legislation implementing the Ausgleich.


The imperial sanction of the Delegations Act by Francis/Franz Josef I.

Starting this date, the official name of the country was "Österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie" [also known is history as the "Dual Austro-Hungarian Monarchy"] and Francis/Franz Josef I became “Kaiser von Österreich und König von Ungarn” [ie “Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary”].

The "Austrian" half of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was officially known as “Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder” [ie "The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council"] and popularly as Österreich or Cisleithania.


Friedrich Ferdinand, Graf von Beust is appointed as Prime Minister [ie “Minister for the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs”] of Österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie [up to 8.11.1871; starting 1868 he became Graf/count of Beust].