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BANAT's COLONIZATION IN THE XIX CENTURY
Unfortunately, the historians very poorly research the XIX Century colonization but it is well established the fact that in Banat existed even a consistent foreign colonization process in the first half of the XIX Century [mainly in Banater Bergland area]. In the 1820's, 11 new villages will be raised -colonized manly with czech, and pemi- in Banater Bergland; among them are the villages of Garana/Wolfsberg, Brebu Nou/Weidental, Lindenfeld which were set-up in the Semenic Mountains/Banater Bergland by pemi [ie germans] from Bohemia [mainly wood cutters].
In today's South romanian Banat [on Danube, between Moldova Nova and Orsova] are several czech's villages in the Bigar Region settled also during the 1820's by czech-speaking peasants from Bohemia. On Luistxo Fernandez Web Site you can find a list of the czech villages in today Romania.
At the middle of XIX Century, on the StEG domain -mainly in Resita and Anina/Steierdorf- will be colonized also czech's and slovaks [but also italian and french laborers; in Resita existed even a "Franzosen Gasse" (ie the French Street)].
Between the colonization of the Banat's Plaines and the colonization in Banater Bergland were some big differences; for example the colonization of Banater Bergland was more a continuos process during the time then a periodical process like the colonization of Banat's Plaines which was made in waves.
At the beginning of the XIX Century [starting ~1805 up to 1850], the "contracting" villages [villages raised upon a settlement or colonization contract; in romanian language "sate contractualiste"] are setup. These villages were raised upon internal migration in Banat's area and could be categorized as individual colonization. There were 41 such villages in Banat [in Torontal and Timis Counties]; among them: Mailat, Cheglevici, Covaci, Sanpetru Mic, Sanmihai, Rauti, Sandra, Uihei, Brestea, Sannmihaiu German, Ernsthausen, etc. These villages were mainly tobacco cultivator's villages. Each inhabitant of these villages was forced to grow tobacco on 3[or 4] Joch of land and half of the harvest being delivered to the tobacco monopoly. The settlement contract, concluded between the owner of the estate [private owner or state owner] and the settlers, was based on a 30 year lease agreement [named PACHVERTRAG]. From Lisa Flassak's "Ernsthausen Heimatbuch", we know something about how these villages were raised up: "To a completed residence, in the Ernsthausen case, was included 24 Joch of farmland broken into 8 Joch of winter pasture, 8 Joch of summer pasture and 8 Joch of fallow land; in addition 6 Joch of meadow and 3 Joch of pasture land. A tithe was to have been paid amounting to Metzen [a dry measure, especially for grain] and eight Metzen of oats or Kurkuruz. The privileges of liquor-licenses, selling of meat, fishery, mill-tax, hunting, Ziegelschlag and other crown regalia remained an exclusive right of the rulers".
Starting the 1860's, when the villages were organized on a administrative autonomy basis, the possible advantages given to the colonists were lessen drastically.
Between 1880-1890 only 10 new villages are raised [there is not more available land]: 6 in Caraş-Severin County, 3 in Timiş and only one in Torontal County. After 1900 only one hamlet will be raised: Sosdea Noua/Waldau in Timis County [founded between 1908-1909]. In 1910 the hamlet had 54 houses and more than 300 inhabitants. In 1965 this hamlet will be abandoned.
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