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AC = after Christ / post Christum [latin]
BC = before Christ / ante Christum [latin]
1. See also our comment "Some Basic Info on Banat"
2. Emperor Franz Josef I [B 18.08.1830; D 21.11.1916], in his Imperial Constitution issued on 4.03.1849 at Olmutz / Olomouc and then in an Imperial Patent / Decree from 16.11.1849, proclaimed the Vojvodatu Serbico et Temesiensi Banatu (in Latin) [Serbische Wojwodina und Temescher Banat (in German) Voievodina sârbească şi Banatul Timişan (in Romanian); Szerb-Vajdaság és Temesi-Bánság (in Hungarian); Vojvodstvo Srbija i Tamiški Banat (in Serbian); Serbian Voivodina and Timis's Banat (in English)]. This new Kronland was formed by the union between the regions of Banat, Bačka, and eastern Srem to be part of the Austrian Empire. This administration form lasted almost 12 years [until 27.12.1860] and ceased to exist in the same way; the Emperor passed a decree according to which the regions / counties forming this region was re-annexed to Hungary. Up to 1860, it had consisted of 5 comitats / (var)megye / counties, with a total population -in 1860- of 1524214 [414947 romanians, 396156 germans 309885 serbs, 256164 hungarians; the rest were croatians, bulgarians, slovaks and jews].
2a. Francesco Griselini [*12.08.1717, Venice; † 1784, Milan], cartographer, journalist [founded and guided Giornale d'Italia spettante alla scienza naturale e principalmente all'agricoltura, alle arti ed al commercio between 1760-1776], publisher, editor, naturalist, botanist, paleontologist, zoologist, agronomist, physicist, scientist and voyager, a true "ambulant encyclopedia". He lived in Banat between September 1774 and February 1777.
2b. Dacia Ripensis. Emperor Aurelian redrawn [in 271 AD?] the roman troops at south of Danube River, in Moesia province, where he will set up a new province named DACIA AURELIANI. This province was latter divided by Diocletian or Constantine I in DACIA RIPENSIS, near the Danube, with it's capital at Ratiaria [today Arčar, distr. de Vidin, Bulgaria] and DACIA MEDITERRANEA, with the capital at Sardica [today Sofia, Bulgaria]. The two provinces will survive up to 535 AD when emperor Justinian I will set up a new province -i.e. IUSTINIANA PRIMA- inside which both of these provinces will be found.
DACIA RIPENSIS was at South of Danube River, at right to today's romanian Oltenia region. The province was defended by the Vth Macedonica legion [billeted at Oescus/Gighen, Bulgaria] and XIIIth Gemina legion [billeted at Ratiaria/Arčar, Bulgaria]. These legions controlled, at least in the first part of the V century, also the north part of the Danube River, between Dierna/Orsova and Sucidava/Celei [at the mouth of Olt river] with more then 10 roman camps and fortified castellum's.
Aurelian /i.e. Lucius Domitius Aurelianus [*9.09.214/215 AD; roman emperor between 270-'75; †.09./.10.275, Caenophrurium]
Diocletian /i.e. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus [*245; emperor between 284-1.05.305; †3.12.316, Salona/Split]
Constantine I "the Great" /i.e. Flavius Valerius Constantinus [*27.02.271/272/273, Naissus/Niš; emperor between 306/323-'37; †22.05.337, Nicomedia]
Justinian I /i.e. Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus [*~482, Tauresium/Caricin Grad; emperor between 1.08.527-'65; †565]
3. Luigi Ferdinando, Count de Marsigli [B 10.07.1658, Bologna; D 1.11.1730, Bologna. Picture] cartographer and geographer, scientist and astronomer, botanist and naturalist, habsburg general and emissary of popes, patron of the arts and letters.
He was a member of an old patrician family and was educated in accordance with his rank; he studied mathematics, anatomy, and natural history with the best teachers. As a soldier, the Republic of Venice sent him in 1679 to Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire. There he investigated the condition of the Ottoman forces, while at the same time he observed the surroundings of the Thracian Bosporus. In 1680, when the Turks threatened to invade again Hungary, he offered his services to the Emperor Leopold I [B 9.06.1640; D 5.05.1705]. In 1683 the army of the Ottoman / Turkish Empire marched again against Vienna [in July 1683 the Turks were in front of Vienna's walls]. The war continued for 16 years and Luigi Ferdinando, Count de Marsigli fought in it. On 2.07.1683 [the feast of the Visitation], he fell wounded and was taken prisoner. He suffered as a slave until he was ransomed on 25.03.1684 [the feast of the Annunciation]. After the long war against the Ottoman Empire [in the spring of 1684, with the help of the Pope Innocent / Innocenzo / Inocentiu XI [1676-1689], the Habsburg House, Poland, Order of Malta and Venice, formed a Saint / Holly League; Russia joined it in 1687] Marsigli was employed to arrange the boundaries between the Venetian Republic, Ottoman Empire, and the Habsburg Empire. Also, Emperor Leopold I instructed him to elaborate a proposition to organize the foreign trade in the new political situation. So, in 1699, was born his study about trade: Discursus ober den Traffico, namely Discourse of the Trade. Johann Christoph Müller, a very important cartographer at that time, illustrated the study with a map which included the territories of the countries of the Habsburg Empire, Adriatic Sea, Italy, Black Sea, etc. Müller marked the continental and the water ways on rivers and on the seas trade lines showing the way of the goods from India, Asia Minor, Russia, Poland and Italy to Hungary and vice versa.
During the war of the Spanish Succession, Marsigli was second in command under Count d'Arco at the fortress of Old Breisach, near the Rhine River. The fortress surrendered [due treachery?] on 6.09.1703 in front of the French's. Count d'Arco was beheaded because he was found guilty of capitulating before it was necessary, while Marsigli was stripped of all honours and commissions, and his sword was broken over him. His appeals to the emperor were in vain. So, Marsigli's soldier career came to an end.
Even as a soldier Marsigli had always found enough time to devote to his favorite scientific pursuits. He drew plans, made astronomical observations, measured the speed and size of rivers, studied the products, the mines, the birds, fishes, and fossils of the lands he visited, and also collected specimens of every kind, instruments, models, antiquities, etc. Finally he returned to Bologna and presented in 1712 his entire collection to the Senate of Bologna. There he founded an "Institute of Sciences and Arts". The Institute, with six different divisions, was formally opened in 1715. Later Marsigli established a printing-house furnished with the best types for Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. This was put in charge of the Dominican Order, and placed under the patronage of St. Thomas Aquinas. In 1727 he added to the collections the East India material that he collected in England and Holland. In 1715 he was named foreign associate of the Paris Academy of Sciences; he was also a member of the Royal Society of London, and of Montpellier.
Works: "Osservazioni interne al Bosforo Tracio" (Rome, 1681); "Histoire physique de la mer", translated by Leclerc (Amsterdam, 1725); "Danubius Pannonico-mysicus, observationibus", etc. (7 vols., Hague, 1726); "L'Etat militaire de l'empire ottoman" (Amsterdam, 1732).
4. "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus in quo Tabulć et Descriptiones Omnium Regionum", Edita a Guiljel: et Ioanne Blaeu [ie Theater of the World, or a New Atlas of Maps and Representations of All Regions, Edited by Willem and Joan Blaeu].
This Latin edition of Willem Janszoon and Joan Blaeu's Theatrum orbis terrarum, sive, Atlas novus was published in 4 volumes beginning in 1645. The first edition of this atlas was published in 1635 as a two volume set in German, Dutch, Latin, and French. By 1662 the atlas had grown to 11 or 12 volumes depending on the edition and the inclusion of a sea-atlas. At this point in time the atlas became known as the Atlas maior. This work is considered the Blaeus' crowning achievement in the field of cartography.
5. On the Blaeu Altas's map could be an obvious mistake because the real Rascia was S of Danube River [ie the area on the NW side of today Kosovo; in the mountain zone situated between the valley of the Lim, Ibar, Tara and the reign of Dioclea].
The real discussion -still an "opened" issue among the historians- is regarding the old meaning of the word "rascian" when it is used referring to the Banat region [after 1718 the Imperial administration used the term "raizen"; "rascieni" in romanian language].
Some historians will say that rascian / raizen means only serb(s) / serbian. But this theory is contradicted also by the Blaeu Atlas because here Serbia is named simply Servia [in latin language].
So, the other theory, which sustain that this is a denomination for Orthodox [not united with Rome] believers, is probably the right one and this word "rascian" is linked to / with religion and not with nationality. At the time when the Blaeu Atlas was done, Banat's territory was inhabited mainly by romanians / valahi & serbs. And these were all of Orthodox believe. The problem is more complex because, in the XVIII Century, the Imperial authorities will use this term "raizen" with all the possible connotations [during the time and in the same time!].
6. Evliya Chelebi
also known as Evlia Celebi / Çelebi or Evliya Effendi Chelebi; probably the name is just a pseudonym because Evliya means, in turkish language, "Court Iman" or "Government Official" and Celebi -pronounced Chelebi- means "Gentleman"
diplomat, traveler, chronicler and writer
Evliya Celebi was a great traveler in the XVII century Ottoman Empire. He was brought up in the middle ranking court official circles. He claims to have had a dream in which he traveled - so he set out to do it in reality. His travels took him to the far corners of the Ottoman Empire and probably beyond [at least as far as Vienna]. He is remarkable in many ways but mainly because he wrote in everyday language. His book -Seyahatname [ie The Book of Travels]- of his travels writing was compiled at the end of his life and is passed down to us in doubtless corrupt versions. He accompanied the turkish armies in their expedition into Mani in 1668-'70 and was employed by Ali Pasha, the turkish commander to travel to Albania to recruit workmen and troops to rebuild the fortresses of Zarnata and Kelefa. His descriptions of locations match other evidence, both contemporary to him and present day remains.
7. Nicolaus Olahus [known in the hungarian historiography as Oláh Miklós /ie "the romanian" Nicolae / Nicolaus]
[B 10.01.1493 in Transylvania at Sibiu (Nagyszeben / Hermanstadt); D 15.01.1568 at Nagyszombat / Trnava]
Archbishop of Gran and Primate of Hungary, a distinguished prelate. His autobiographical notes and correspondence throw light on his life.
Nicolaus Olahus was the nephew of Iancu de Hunedoara / Iános Hunyadi7b; his father, the noble Stephanus / Stefan Olachus [ie the "romanian"] was brother-in-law to Iancu de Hunedoara / Ianos Hunyadi because his wife [ie the mother of Nicolaus Olachus] was Marina, the sister of Iancu de Hunedoara. The Olachus family was of Wallachian / ie romanian descent and they were related with the ruling house -XIII-XV century- of Wallachia / Tara Romaneasca [Stephanus / Stefan Olachus was the son of Manaila and the great-son of Dan II, voievod / ie ruler of Tara Romaneasca between 1420-'22; 1427-June 1431. This Dan II was the nephew of Mircea cel Batrin and gggg-son of the first voievod of Tara Romaneasca, Tihomir / Tohomer (1290-1310)]. The Olahus family originates from the Tara Romaneasca and they seek refuge in Transylvania due the fights for the throne undergone in the Tara Romaneasca. Being of noble blood ["ruler bone"], the family was always in danger. The Olahus's have settled in Orastie as rulers in the middle part of the XV century. The presence of a romanian in such an important function, represents nothing unusual in itself. There are many known examples in the epoch, when a knez or a romanian noble, due to special military merits, has been rewarded with donations and political positions in their area of origin or outside it.
In 1504 Stefan Olahus was elected as county lord of Orastie. In the Middle Age the town was ruled by a council, with a royal county lord helped by 12 jurymen, elected among the local wealthy craftsmen and merchants. We can mention the people from the Olahus family who were amid the various jurymen of Orastie. Here in Orastie is also mentioned one of the oldest -attested in 1332- school from today Romania. At the beginning of the XVI century here was also a saxon / german school and one of its student will be Nicolaus Olahus.
After having studied at the Chapter School of Oradea / Várad between 1505-'12, he became a page at the court of Wladislaw II, but shortly afterwards chose an ecclesiastical career, and was ordained a priest in 1516 [or 1518?]. While acting as secretary to Georg Szatmáry, Bishop of Fünfkirchen, he was appointed a canon of that chapter, later of Gran, and in 1522 became Archdeacon of Komorn. In 1526 he was made secretary to King Louis II; but was transferred to the service of Queen Maria. After the battle of Mohács, Olahus attached himself to the party of King Ferdinand I, but retained his position with the queen-dowager. In 1527 he was appointed "custos" or head of the Chapter of Stuhlweissenburg, and accompanied the queen-dowager in 1530 to the imperial diet at Augsburg. When in 1531 she became Stadtholder of the Netherlands, he went with her to Belgium, where he remained [with a brief interruption in 1539] until his return to Hungary in 1542. In the following year he was made by Ferdinand I royal chancellor and Bishop of Agram. In 1548 he became Bishop of Erlau, and in 1553 Archbishop of Gran. In 1558 he is ennobled to the rank of "baron". As such he crowned Maximilian King of Hungary, and performed the solemn obsequies  over Ferdinand I. In 1562 he was appointed as regent and deputy of the Emperor in ruling Hungary. As Archbishop of Gran, Olahus's first care was to put order into the finances and property of the archdiocese, He had the "Jus Piseti" again enforced, i, e. the right of supervision over the mint at Körmöczbánya, for which surveillance the archdiocese enjoyed a large revenue. At his own expense, he redeemed the hypothecated provostship of Turócz, also the encumbered possessions of the Diocese of Neutra. Olahus likewise, as Archbishop of Gran, exercised a supervision over the Diocese of Erlau, and administered the Archdiocese of Kalocsa, vacant for 20 years. After the capture of Gran by the Turks, the archiepiscopal residence was at Nagyszombat or Pozsonv.
Olahus was particularly active in the Counter-Reformation; even before his elevation to the Archbishopric of Gran, he had been a very zealous opponent of the new Protestant teachings. As Primate of Hungary he threw himself with renewed energy into the great conflict, aiming especially at the purity of Catholic Faith, the restoration of ecclesiastical discipline, the reformation of the clergy, and the establishment of new schools. The mountain cities of Upper Hungary, in which the doctrines of the Reformation had made considerable progress, attracted his particular attention. He organized a visitation of the archdiocese, which he in great part conducted in person, besides convoking, with a similar intention, a number of diocesan synods. The first of these synods was held in 1560 at Nagyszombat; at its close he promulgated a code of dogmatic and moral instructions, intended for the clergy, published during that and the following year. In 1561 a provincial synod was held, likewise at Nagyszombat, to discuss the participation of the bishops of Hungary in the Council of Trent, shortly before re-convened. While it is not certain that Olahus took part in that council, or that he promulgated in Hungary its decrees of 1562 and 1564, it is known that he followed its deliberations with close attention and practically adopted in Hungary some of its decisions. In 1563 Olahus submitted to the council a lengthy memorial, in which he urged the importance of dealing with the critical situation of the Hungarian Church and describing in strong language the efforts he had made to overcome the demoralization that had seized on the clergy. It was particularly through school-reform and the proper instruction of youth that he hoped to offset the progress of the Reformation. He restored the cathedral school at Gran, which had fallen into decay when that city was captured by the Turks; he transferred it, however, to his archiepiscopal city of Nagyszombat and confided it to the Jesuits, whom he invited to Hungary in 1561, and who, by their preaching and spiritual ministrations, profoundly influenced the religious life of the nation. Among the publications initiated by him were the "Breviarium Ecclesia Strigoniensis" , and the "Ordo et Ritus Ecclesia Strigoniensis" . The revival of the custom of ringing the Angelus was due to him. As chancellor and confidant of Ferdinand I, Olahus possessed much political influence, which he exercised in the special interest of the Catholic religion. In 1562 he acted as royal Stadtholder.
Works: "Hungaria et Attila"; "Genesis filiorum Regis Ferdinandi"; "Ephemerides", "Brevis descriptio vita Benedicti Zerchsky" were edited by Kovachich in vol. I of the "Scriptores minores"
7b. Iancu de Hunedoara [known in the hungarian historiography as Iános Hunyady]
[B~1400; D 11.08.1456]
Governor of Hungary, defender of Europe against the advance of the Turks; father of Matthias I (Corvinus) , the future king of Hungary. The origin and parentage of his family was surrounded by numerous legends. The historian Bonfini derived the family from the Roman gens Corvina, or Valeriana, in order to flatter his king, Matthias Corvinus. Gáspár Heltai in his chronicle makes him the illegitimate son of King Sigismund and a Romanian peasant-girl. Others try to establish the purely Hungarian or Serbian origin of the family.
In view of modern investigations it was proved that the family of Hunyadi was of Romanian origin; Iancu de Hunedoara probably spooked the romanian language and was born in the Roman Catholic faith, which his father Voic [Vajk, Voik, Vuk] probably had already professed. The oldest ascertained member of the family was called Serbe, whose son, Vajk, the father of Iancu de Hunedoara, was already in possession of the Hunedoara's castle, the hereditary seat of the family, before 1407. The family name of Iancu de Hunedoara's mother, Elizabeth, has not been ascertained up to now. The year of Iancu's birth is either one of the last years of the fourteenth, or one of the first years of the fifteenth century but there are sources that indicate an even earlier birth [in 1387]. The birthplace of Hunyady is not known for certain.
Of his youth we know that in 1410-'14 he was in the service of the family Ujlaky, in Syrmia or in the Banat of Macsó. In 1414-'27 he was in the service of Stefan Lazarevics of Serbia and he was probably stationed in Becse. Between 1428-'39, he is in the military entourage of the King Sigismund. Sigismund rewarded him, for distinguish himself in the war against the Turks during the siege of the castle of Szendrö, with large donations and made him one of his counselors. The rise to power of Iancu de Hunedoara began after the death of Sigismund. In 1438, King Albert appointed him as Ban of Szörény / Severin & Count of Temes / Timis, in 1439 he received from the king another donation and the castle of Hunyad / Hunedoara [his family seat], and was named as guardian of Albert's posthumous son, Ladislaus. After the death of Albert, Wladislaw III of Poland was elected King of Hungary, in order to give the country a strong ruler; Iancu de Hunedoara took a leading part in this election and by his support the new king firmly established himself on the throne. Through gratitude he made Iancu de Hunedoara commander of the fortress of Belgrade, and Voivod of Transylvania. This appointment was the beginning of the great wars, under Iancu de Hunedoara's leadership, against the Turks, who were threatening Europe. In 1441 he gained the victory of Szendrö, in 1422 that of Maros-Szent-Imre, whereupon he invaded Wallachia / Tara Romaneasca. In 1443 Iancu de Hunedoara began the Bulgarian war, during which he advanced to Sofia, and captured it. The Turkish sultan was forced to make peace in 1444. At the instigation of the papal legate, Cardinal Julian Cesarini, King Ladislaus I broke the peace and decided on a new campaign against the Turks. On 10.11.1444, the Hungarian army was defeated at Varna, and the king himself died on the battlefield. After the battle, Iancu de Hunedoara fled, and fell into the hands of his relative Vlad Dracul, the Voievod Tara Romaneasca / Wallachia [the army of Tara Romaneasca, lead by Vlad Dracul's son, had 7000 soldiers involved in the battle at Varna helping Iancu de Hunedoara]; however, he soon obtained quickly his freedom.
In 1445, the diet elected Iancu de Hunedoara one of the five governors of the country, and placed him over Transylvania and the districts beyond the Tisa / Theiss River.
In 1446, Iancu de Hunedoara will be elected Governor of Hungary, and entrusted with its government in the name of the minor, Ladislaus V, until the latter's majority. The years 1446-'48 were taken up with a war against Emperor Frederick III, who was ravaging the western part of the hungarian kingdom, and with campaigns against the Turks. On 17-19.10.1448 occurred the battle of the Amselfelde (Kossovo Heath, in Serbia), against the Turks, battle which was lost. While fleeing, Iancu de Hunedoara fell into the hands of his deadly enemy, the ruler of Serbia, Georg Brankovics; however, he soon succeeded in regaining his freedom through the intervention of the Hungarian magnates. Thereupon Iancu de Hunedoara turned his attention to the Hussites, who, under the leadership of John Ziska, were devastating the upper part of the country. In 1450, he made warlike preparations against the despot Georg Brankovics, but they came to a mutual agreement in the end. As governor, Iancu de Hunedoara conducted the negotiations with the Emperor Frederick, the guardian of King Ladislaus, to enable the latter to go to Hungary. Ladislaus remained with the emperor, but the emperor recognized Iancu de Hunedoara as governor. In 1453, when Ladislaus came to the throne, Iancu de Hunedoara resigned as governor and was appointed Captain-General of Hungary and Count of Bistrita / Besztercze.
The last years of his life were taken up with new campaigns against the Turks. In 1451, Sultan Mohammed II armed himself for a decisive campaign against Europe, conquered Constantinople in 1453 and then prepared for war against Hungary. In 1454, Serbia fell into the hands of the Turks, but Iancu de Hunedoara gained a victory over them at Szendrö. The wiles and intrigues of his hereditary enemy, magnate Ulric Czilley, caused Iancu de Hunedoara to resign all his dignities, and to retire into private life; but as the power of the Turks became more threatening, Iancu de Hunedoara came forward once more, reconciled himself with Czilley, and undertook the defense of the southern frontier of Hungary. After the preparations for war had been completed with all speed, Iancu de Hunedoara marshaled his army, united with the peasant forces of the Franciscan monk, John Capistran at Szeged, and set out against Sultan Mohammed. At Belgrade, on 21-22.07.1456, he gained a brilliant victory over the Turks. Even today the bells of the churches are drawn at noon in the honor of this victory. The plague, which had broken out in the camp of the Christian army, carried him off shortly after this victory. According to his wish, his body was buried at Alba Iulia / Gyulafehérvár.
Iancu de Hunedoara was married to Elizabeth Szilágyi of Horogssey. Of the male issue of this marriage, Ladislaus, who was believed to conspire against King Ladislaus V, fell under the headman's axe, on 16.03.1457 at Buda. The second son, Matthias, succeeded to the Hungarian throne in 1458 at the death of Ladislaus V.
8. Saint John of Capistrano
[B 1385, Capistrano, Italy; D 23.10.1456, Illok, Hungary; Feast-day: October 23; Patron of Jurists]
St. John was born as son of a former German knight. He studied law at the University of Perugia and practiced as a lawyer in the courts of Naples. King Ladislas of Naples appointed him governor of Perugia. During a war with a neighbouring town he was betrayed and imprisoned. Upon his release he entered the Franciscan community at Perugia in 1416. After his ordination he travelled throughout Italy, Germany, Bohemia, Austria, Hungary, Poland, and Russia establishing communities of Franciscan renewal. St. John, at the age of 70, was commissioned by Pope Callistus II to preach and lead a crusade against the invading Turks. Meting with Iancu de Hunedoara7 at Szeged, the peasant forces lead by John Capistran will be involved on 21-22.07.1456 in the great battle of Belgrade against the Turks.
9. Ludovicus / Ludivik Crijevic [also as de Cerva, Cerva, Cervarius, Cervinus] Tuberus / Tubero / Tuberon de Dubrovnik
[1459-1527], croat writer and stylist
-De Turcarum origine, moribus & rebus gestis commentarius (Florence, 1590); work on the origin, customs and deeds of the Turks.
-Commentaria (Commentaries) was put on the Roman Catholic "Index of Prohibited Books" because of its criticism of Church policy, morals and attitudes, and its marked tolerance of other religions and objectivity regarding the Turks.
-Commentatorium de rebus, quae temporibus eius in illa Europae parte, quam Pannonii & Turcae eorumq; finitimi incolunt, gestae sunt, libri videcim (Francofurti, 1603).
-[Another edition] Commentatiorum de rebus, suo tempore, nimirum ab anno Christi MCCCCXC. vsque ad annum Christi MDXXII. in Pannonia, et finitimis regionibus gestis libri XI (1746, Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum, tom. 2).
-Commentariolus L. Cervarii Tuberonis de origine et incremento urbis Rhacusanae, ejusdemque ditionis descriptio, auctore Nicolao Joannis de Bona, et Stephani Gradi Antiquitatum Rhacusanarum diatriba. His accedit de illustribus familiis, quae Rhacusae extant ... elegia Didaci Pyrrhi. Cum notis et supplementis (Rhacussi, 1790).
10. Pope Gregorius / Gregory XI
[B 1331, castle of Maumont in Limoges's Dioceses; D 27.03.1378, Rome]
ie Pierre Roger de Beaufort, nephew of Pope Clement VI, was elected pope at Avignon, in December 1370. He chose the name of Gregorius XI, had himself ordained priest on 4.01.1371, and was crowned pope on 5.01.1371.
11. Temesköz or Temeskuz is a compound Hungarian name / word which is very hard to translate:
köz = spatiu / space, comunitate / community, comun / common, obstesc / public;
Temes = Timiş (River)
So, the name would mean "între-Timiş" [in Romanian language] = between / among Timiş Rivers with reference to Timişoara's region / country(side) because this specific region was located between today Timiş and Bega rivers [each having several branches in old times]. Until the XVIII Century the Bega river was known as Timişul Mic [i.e. the little Timiş] or Timişel.
According to ENGEL Pál, Temesközön = "in the Middle Ages, it was understand rather only the section between the two Temes rivers and Berzava river" [see the first note at page 5 in his book "A temesvári és Moldovai szandzsák törökkori települései (1554-1579)", Szeged, Hungary, 1996, 187 pg., ISSN 0237-4587, ISBN 9637237240].
So, this name denominates only a portion -i.e. the "core"- of the historical Banat, the region at South of Timiş River and at North of Bârzava River. During the time we had similar situations. For example, the germans from the Banat Mountains named the region as "Banater Bergland". But this does not mean that all the inhabitants of the Banat used this name constantly and usually.
The term Temesköz was used merely as a geographical designation and did not existed as a separately governed administrative unit of the Hungarian medieval kingdom. So, the attempt, made mainly in the last several years by some hungarian "historians" from today Banat, to raise the problem of the Temesköz name applying to the whole Banat has no historical background what so ever and has only a propagandistic aim. More, the common people [even hungarians] never used this word in their daily vocabulary because the name is found mainly in the name of the nobles from the in the Middle Age [for example, in 1388 the documents mention a certain Joannes de Temeskuz and in 1413 a Albertus Alberti de Temeskuz] and the first hungarians were colonized in Banat only in the last decade of the XVIII Century and at the beginning of the XIX Century.
12. During the history, several regions were named or transformed in Banat regions. These Banat(e) [or Banovina] were the territory ruled by a ban [see at FINE, John V.A. Jr. "The Late Medieval Balkans", Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, 1994, page 621].
Among them, we will find [the first known one -the early Banat of Croatia- will be discussed separately]:
-Banat of Croatia [and latter Banat of Croatia-Slavonia / Banus von Kroatien, Slawonien und Dalmatien]
-The first known ruler of Bosnia which had the title of ban was Boric [1154-1163]. During the reign of Bela IV of Hungary [1235-1270] upper Bosnia and the district of Posavina were formed into the Banat of Bosnia, the region in the W on the Usora into the Banat of Usora, and the region in the E on the Drina into the Banat of Soli or Tuzla.
-Banat of Matchva / Macsó / Macivei in Bosnia, the SE of Sirmia [see MT on the map]
-Banat d'Ozora, the SW of Sirmia [see OZ on the map ; map ~1300]
-Banat d'Ozora; Banat of SO / Sói [see on the map]
-Banat of Srem / Srijem; Banat de Szrebernik; Banat de Varazdin [see on the map 1500b]
-Banat of Transylvania [between 1258-1261]; ÁKOS Erne / Ernye (Ireneus) was the only one Bani Transilvanie known in the history.
Note: we are certain that this list is not exhaustive. It is not in our intention to discuss in great detail the historical existence of each one.
13. The Mark System, the name given to a social organization which rests on the common tenure and commonly cultivation of the land by small groups of freemen. Both politically and economically the mark was an independent community, and its earliest members were doubtless blood relatives. In its origin the word is the same as mark or march (q.v.), a boundary. First used in this sense, it was then applied to the land cleared by the settlers in the forest areas of Germany, and later it was used for the system which prevailed -to what extent or for how long is uncertain- in that country.
It is generally assumed that the lands of the mark were divided into three portions, forest, meadow and arable, and as in the manorial system which was later in vogue elsewhere, a system of rotation of crops in two, three or even six fields was adopted, each member of the community having rights of pasture in the forest and the meadow, and a certain share of the arable.
The mark was a self-governing community. Its affairs were ordered by the marknien who met together at stated times in the markmoot. Soon, however, their freedom was encroached upon, and in the course of a very short time it disappeared altogether.
The extent and nature of the mark system has been a subject of controversy among historians. One school holds that it was almost universal in Germany; that it was, in fact, the typical Teutonic method of holding and cultivating the land. >From Germany, it is argued, it was introduced by the Angle and Saxon invaders into England, where it was extensively adopted, being the foundation upon which the prevailing land system in early England was built.
An opposing school denies entirely the existence of the mark system, and a French writer, Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, refers to it contemptuously as "a figment of the Teutonic imagination". This view is based largely upon the supposition' that common ownership of the land was practically unknown among the early Germans, and was by no means general among the early English. The complete mark system was certainly not prevalent in Anglo-Saxon England, nor did it exist very widely, or for any very long period in Germany, but the system which did prevail in these two countries contained elements which are also found in the mark system.
-Georg Ludovic von Maurer [1790-1872]: "Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark- Hof- Dorf- und Stadtverfassung und der offentlichen Gewalt" (Munich, 1854; new ed., Vienna, 1896) and "Geschichte der Markenverfassung in Deutschland" (Erlangen, 1856)
-Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges [1830-1889]: "Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire" (1885); see also the translation in English of "The Origin of Properly in Land" [downloadable]
-Karl Lamprecht [1856-1915]: "Deutsches Wirtschaftsleben im Miltelalter" (Leipzig, 1886)
-Richard Schröder [1838-1917]: "Lehrbuch der deutschen Rechtsgeschichte" (Leipzig, 1902)
-William Stubbs [1825-1901]: "Constitutional History of England", vol. I. (1891)
14. Sarif al Idrisi
[ie Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-sarif Abu Abdallah al-Idrisi or Al-Idrisi; or
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Idris Ash-Sharif (Al-Idrisi / Dreses); or
Al-Sharif Al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi; or
Abu Abdullah Mohammed Ibn al-Sharif al-Idrisi [Edrisi]; or
Abu Abdullah Mohammed bin Mohammed 'Abdullah bin Idris al-Hammudi al-Hassani; or
Abu Abdulla Mohammad Al Sabti. It seams that the scholars could not fully agree on his name!]
[B 1099, Ceuta; D~1166] Picture
the greatest geographer and cartographer of the Middle Ages. He had original contributions in the medicinal plants field and also wrote on zoology and fauna. Traveler and poet, an accomplished genius of the first order.
Sarif al Idrisi was born to a noble family, the Hammudites being a descendant of the Idrisi Kings of Maghreb. As direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed [his grandsons through Al Hassan Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib] he was entitled to the title ash-Sharif [the Noble].
During his youth he studied in Cordoba, then the capital of Islamic Spain. It seams that Sarif al Idrisi will much travel himself and had been to France and England as well as Central Asia and Constantinople or westward to Madeira and the Canary Islands.
When he visited his relatives in Sicily, Sarif al Idrisi received an invitation from the Norman ruler Roger II Guiscard, King of Naples & Sicily [22.12.1095-26.02.1154] to visit his court. Received with honors, Sarif al Idrisi found in Roger II a monarch occupied with geography all his free time. Roger II asked Sarif al Idrisi to draw a map of the earth. In addition to Sarif al Idrisi's personal travel and scholarship, it appears that "certain intelligent men" were selected and these were dispatched on travels and were accompanied by draftsmen. On the basis of these observations made 'in the field', and from data derived from sources as Ptolemy and earlier Arabic and Greek geographers, geographical information was compiled, correlated, and brought up to date by Sarif al Idrisi in the next 15 years.
In 1154, a few weeks before Roger II's death, Sarif al Idrisi completed construction of a celestial sphere and a disk shaped map of the known world [a planisphere 3,5 meters long and 1,5 meters wide (12 X 5 feet)], both of solid silver [in 1160, the disk fell into the hands of a mob and was smashed to pieces]. The map was based on the encyclopedic work named the Kitab Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ilkhtiraq al-Afaq [ie known as The Delight of Him Who Desires to Journey Through The Climates or The Amusements of him who desires to traverse the Earth or The Recreation / Amusements for Him Who Wishes to Travel Through the Countries], named by the author the Kitab ar-Rujari (ie The Book of Roger) [in Latin and Arabic] and the map, Tabula Rogeriana which contains detailed information on European countries, Africa and Asia. Sarif al Idrisi's meticulously recorded on these the seven continents with trade routes, lakes and rivers, major cities, and plains and mountains. He also included such information as the distance, length and height as appropriate.
In his work from 1154, Sarif al-Idrisi will describe accurately the road from Cavorz [i.e. Carlovit / Karlowitz; today Sremski Karlovci downstream from Novi Sad, on the Danube, in Serbia / Yugoslavia] to Timişoara, passing trough Cnez [i.e. today the village of Satchinez, at 32 km NW of Timişoara], and will describe Timişoara -written as T.n.y.s.b.r. which is the first historical mention of the city- as ,,a splendid city located South -wrong, it's at East! - of the river Tisa / Tisza and abounding in great richness" [or "a pleasant city ... offering big wealth / abundance"].
It was not until 1592 [or 1619?] that this manuscript was translated into Latin and will be published in Rome. This was an abridged edition and the translator did not give credit [did not even known the author's name!?] to Sarif al Idrisi. Christopher Columbus in his travel used a map that was originally taken from Sarif al Idrisi's work.
Sarif al Idrisi wrote in 1161 another more detailed geographical treatise [text and map] for Roger's son William II 'the Bad' [1120-7.05.1166] entitled: "Rawd-Unnas wa-Nuzhat al-Nafs" [ie Pleasure of Men and Delight of Souls or The Garden of Civilization / Humanity and the Amusement of the Soul]. Although his second work is not extant, a shortened version with the title Garden of Joys , has survived; this work consists of 73 maps in the form of an atlas, and is now known as the Little Idrisi. There is a substantial difference between the two versions of 1154 and 1192. The latter map is smaller and contains fewer names.
Some of Sarif al Idrisi's maps can even be viewed on the Net.
Ceuta, city [18 km2; 71926 inhabitants in 1994] situated in NW of Africa, a possession of Spain, on the Strait of Gibraltar. An enclave in Morocco, Ceuta is administered as an integral part of the Spanish Cádiz province. It is located on a peninsula whose promontory forms one of the Pillars of Hercules. The city, which has a European appearance, is a free port, with a large harbor and ample wharves; it is also a refueling and fishing port. Food processing is an important activity, and tourism is growing. Built on a Phoenician colony, the city was held by Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, and Arabs [in 711]. Taken by Portugal in 1415 [it was the first permanent European conquest in Africa], it then passed [in 1580] to Spain. It has remained Spanish despite several attacks, notably a prolonged siege [1694-1720] by the Sultan Moulay Ismail. In the 1990's Ceuta became a way station for many sub-Saharan Africans fleeing civil wars or other strife in their homelands and attempting to immigrate to Europe [more on Ceuta].
Observation: these Notes use too many sources of info to be all listed here. But we must mention at least one: The Catholic Encyclopedia which is an excellent source of info if you can ignore the obvious mistakes existing even here.